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Extension > Small Farms News > June 2013

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Spring Planting and Care of Trees

By: Nathan Winter, Extension Educator, McLeod & Meeker Counties

Trees are often enjoyed more by people that come after those that planted the tree. Trees help define how a yard in the city will look and the type of landscaping that can be done by determining shade or full sun types of plants. Businesses and city municipalities also use trees to help make areas more astatically pleasing to those that are working within in those areas as well as those that are using those areas for recreation. In rural country settings, trees serve many purposes, but one of the core purposes is protection from the weather elements.

We need to know when and how to plant trees to get them started off in the right direction. According to the University of Minnesota Forest Resource Extension, in the Midwest region, bareroot trees and shrubs should be planted when the plants are dormant in the spring or at the end of the growing season (fall). Balled and burlapped, containerized, and container grown plants can be planted throughout the growing season, but with caution during the summer months. If planting in the fall, the recommendation is to plant four weeks before the soil temperature drops below 40 degrees Fahrenheit. To plant trees correctly, obtain a copy of the U of M publication called "Planting and Transplanting Trees and Shrubs", which can be found at http://z.umn.edu/e8m.

Watering is going to be important to a newly planted tree as well as any existing trees on your landscape. Since watering is such a time consuming task, you may have to pick and choose the existing trees that you want to water. I recommend watering any newly planted trees and also water any trees that have shown stress, disease, or insect problems through the growing season.

Water newly watered trees over the root zone of the tree. Established trees should be watered around the "root zone" of the tree. Roots of trees can vary from 1.5 to 3 times as wide as the canopy. Avoid frequent light watering and instead water infrequently and heavy. You will want to wet the soil to a 6 - 8 inch depth and then let the soil dry out in between. Use a rod to determine when you have wet the soil to that depth. Believe it or not, you can over water trees, which will starve the roots of oxygen and cause roots to rot. If rains are averaging one inch every week, watering will probably not be necessary.

Protect stems of landscape and shrub trees from animals and mechanical equipment. This is most important on new or young shrubs and trees. Use a mesh or hardwire cloth at least three inches from the stem. Plastic guards can also be used, but they are only recommended to encase the lower part of the stem, where damage can take place. Sun scald can be prevented by wrapping the trunk with a commercial tree wrap, plastic tree guards, or any other light-colored material. Put the wrap on in the fall and remove it in the spring after the last frost. Wraps should be used primarily on new trees.

Fertilizing trees should be done on a case by case basis. A soil test can be done to determine if the soil does not have the adequate amounts of fertilizer in the soil. U of M Soil Test Kits can be picked up at most U of M Extension Offices or by contacting the U of M Soil Testing Laboratory: http://soiltest.cfans.umn.edu/. Often, the tree has sufficient amounts of nutrients available if the lawn is already being fertilized regularly. To learn more about fertilizing trees, obtain a copy of the U of M publication called "Tree Fertilization: A Guide for Fertilizing New and Established Trees in the Landscape", which can be found at http://z.umn.edu/e8n.

Do the best you can to educate yourself on caring for those beloved trees properly. Proper care will help increase the longevity of your landscape trees and give you and others years of enjoyment and admiration for the trees.

Forage Testing Saves Money

By: Mike Boersma, Extension Educator & 4-H Program Director, Murray & Pipestone Counties

Forages are a major dietary component for many species of livestock. With widespread drought for the past couple of years and a slow start to the spring growing season, forages are in short supply. This shortage has translated to record-setting prices this spring.

With forages becoming a very valuable commodity, testing hay and silages for nutrient content becomes critical. Matching the nutrient content of forages with the animals' nutrient requirements is equally important.

When testing forages, it is important to remember that the results are only as accurate as the sample submitted. When sampling bales of hay, it is best to take core samples from a large number of bales, mix the samples, and then collect a sub-sample for submission to the lab.

Also, collect samples that will best represent the entire bale. Core samples should be taken from a cross-section of the bale. This means the corer should enter the rounded side of round bales or the end of square bales. Also, select bales from various locations within a row or pile to ensure the most accurate representation of the entire lot of hay. Finally, if possible, analyze separate samples for each cutting of hay, as each cutting will be harvested at a slightly different stage of maturity and under varying conditions.

When sampling silages, it is again important to select representative samples. Obtain multiple samples and sample each storage structure (bunker, pile, bag, etc.) separately.

Once testing results have been obtained, using this information to accurately meet animal requirements, without over-feeding and wasting an expensive resource, can save money. Producers should work closely with their nutritionist to accurately determine nutrient requirements of their livestock.

The University of Minnesota Extension has valuable tools that will also assist in this process for beef producers, specifically. The U of M Beef Cow Ration Balancer is available for free download at http://z.umn.edu/cowbalancer. This tool includes valuable information for feeding the beef cow herd and includes a table of nutrient requirements and information on assessing the body condition score of the animals in the herd. The second tool available is the U of M Feedlot Ration Balancer, available at http://z.umn.edu/feedlotbalancer. Here, producers will find information to assist in meeting nutrient requirements of growing calves for backgrounding or feedlot situations.

Performing a nutrient analysis on your forages is the best way to know what you are feeding. With today's high prices, the potential cost associated with not meeting the animals' needs or over-feeding expensive nutrients is much greater than the costs associated with obtaining an accurate forage test. For more information on forage testing, contact your local Extension office.

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